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REFERENCES

Acetaminophen Toxicity

  1. Salgia AD, Kosnik SD. When acetaminophen use becomes toxic. Treating acute accidental and intentional overdose. Postgrad Med. 1999 Apr;105(4):81-4, 87, 90. PMID: 10223088.
  2. Vendemiale G, Grattagliano I, Altomare E, Turturro N, Guerrieri F. Effect of acetaminophen administration on hepatic glutathione compartmentation and mitochondrial energy metabolism in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Oct 25;52(8):1147-54. PMID: 8937421
  3. Lauterburg BH. Analgesics and glutathione. Am J Ther. 2002 May-Jun;9(3):225-33. PMID: 11941382 Alcoholism
  4. Moreno Otero R, Cortés JR. [Nutrition and chronic alcohol abuse]. Nutr Hosp. 2008 May;23 Suppl 2:3-7. PMID: 18714405
  5. Yeh MY, Burnham EL, Moss M, Brown LA. Non-invasive evaluation of pulmonary glutathione in the exhaled breath condensate of otherwise healthy alcoholics. Respir Med. 2008 Feb;102(2):248-55. Epub 2007 Oct 30. 17977706
  6. Joshi PC, Guidot DM. The alcoholic lung: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and potential therapies. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007 Apr;292(4):L813-23. Epub 2007 Jan 12. PMID: 17220370
  7. Fernandez-Checa JC, Kaplowitz N. Hepatic mitochondrial glutathione: transport and role in disease and toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 May 1;204(3):263-73.PMID: 15845418 Alzheimer’s Disease
  8. Liu H, Harrell LE, Shenvi S, Hagen T, Liu RM. Gender differences in glutathione metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosci Res. 2005 Mar 15;79(6):861-7. PMID: 15693022
  9. Viña J, Lloret A, Ortí R, Alonso D. Molecular bases of the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease with antioxidants: prevention of oxidative stress. Mol Aspects Med. 2004 Feb-Apr;25(1-2):117-23. PMID: 15051321
  10. Woltjer RL, Nghiem W, Maezawa I, Milatovic D, Vaisar T, Montine KS, Montine TJ. Role of glutathione in intracellular amyloid-alpha precursor protein/carboxy-terminal fragment aggregation and associated cytotoxicity. J Neurochem. 2005 May;93(4):1047-56. 15857408 Autism
  11. James SJ, Melnyk S, Jernigan S, Hubanks A, Rose S, Gaylor DW. Abnormal transmethylation/transsulfuration metabolism and DNA hypomethylation among parents of children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2008 Nov;38(10):1966-75. Epub 2008 May 30. PMID: 18512136

Cancer & Chemotherapy

  1. Cascinu S, Catalano V, Cordella L, Labianca R, Giordani P, Baldelli AM, Beretta GD, Ubiali E, Catalano G. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Aug 15;20(16):3478-83. PMID: 12177109
  2. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, Wilkinson P, Prescott RJ, Quinn KJ, Tedeschi M. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol. 1997 Jun;8(6):569-73.PMID: 9261526
  3. Friesen C, Kiess Y, Debatin KM. A critical role of glutathione in determining apoptosis sensitivity and resistance in leukemia cells. Cell Death Differ. 2004 Jul;11 Suppl 1:S73-85. PMID: 15105835
  4. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, Spatti GB, Zunino F. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1990;25(5):355-60. PMID: 2306797
  5. Richie JP Jr, Kleinman W, Marina P, Abraham P, Wynder EL, Muscat JE. Blood iron, glutathione, and micronutrient levels and the risk of oral cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(4):474-82. PMID: 18584481

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

  1. Bounous G, Molson J. Competition for glutathione precursors between the immune system and the skeletal muscle: pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome. Med Hypotheses. 1999 Oct;53(4):347-9.PMID: 10608272
  2. Logan AC, Wong C. Chronic fatigue syndrome: oxidative stress and dietary modifications. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Oct;6(5):450-9.PMID: 11703165 Cystic Fibrosis
  3. Lands LC, Grey V, Smountas AA, Kramer VG, McKenna D. Lymphocyte glutathione levels in children with cystic fibrosis. Chest. 1999 Jul;116(1):201-5. PMID: 10424526
  4. 20. Hudson VM. New insights into the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis: pivotal role of glutathione system dysfunction and implications for therapy. Treat Respir Med. 2004;3(6):353-63. PMID: 15658882
  5. 21. Visca A, Bishop CT, Hilton SC, Hudson VM. Improvement in clinical markers in CF patients using a reduced glutathione regimen: an uncontrolled, observational study. J Cyst Fibros. 2008 Sep;7(5):433-6. Epub 2008 May 21. PMID: 18499536
  6. Zhang Y, Duan K. Glutathione exhibits antibacterial activity and increases tetracycline efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sci China C Life Sci. 2009 Jun;52(6):501-5. Epub 2009 Jun 26. PMID: 19557326 Diabetes
  7. Samiec PS, Drews-Botsch C, Flagg EW, Kurtz JC, Sternberg P Jr, Reed RL, Jones DP. Glutathione in human plasma: decline in association with aging, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetes. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998 Mar 15;24(5):699-704. PMID: 9586798
  8. Morocutti A, Sethi M, Hayward A, Lee A, Viberti G. Glutathione reverses the growth abnormalities of skin fibroblasts from insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998 Jun;9(6):1060-6
  9. Lu SC. Regulation of glutathione synthesis. Mol Aspects Med. 2009 Feb-Apr;30(1-2):42-59. Epub 2008 Jun 14. PMID: 18601945 Gastrointestinal
  10. Sido B, Hack V, Hochlehnert A, Lipps H, Herfarth C, Dröge W. Impairment of intestinal glutathione synthesis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 1998 Apr;42(4):485-92. PMID: 9616308
  11. Iantomasi T, Marraccini P, Favilli F, Vincenzini MT, Ferretti P, Tonelli F. Glutathione metabolism in Crohn’s disease. Biochem Med Metab Biol. 1994 Dec;53(2):87-91. PMID: 7710773
  1. Biagioni C, Favilli F, Catarzi S, Marcucci T, Fazi M, Tonelli F, Vincenzini MT, Iantomasi T. Redox state and O2*- production in neutrophils of Crohn’s disease patients. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 Feb;231(2):186-95.PMID: 16446495
  2. Stojiljković V, Todorović A, Pejić S, Kasapović J, Saicić ZS, Radlović N, Pajović SB. Antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in small intestinal mucosa of children with celiac disease. Clin Biochem. 2009 Sep;42(13-14):1431-7. Epub 2009 Jun 25. PMID: 19560448
  3. Maor I, Rainis T, Lanir A, Lavy A. Oxidative stress, inflammation and neutrophil superoxide release in patients with Crohn’s disease: distinction between active and non-active disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Aug;53(8):2208-14. Epub 2008 Feb 6. PMID: 18253831

Heart Disease & Stroke

  1. Shimizu H, Kiyohara Y, Kato I, Kitazono T, Tanizaki Y, Kubo M, Ueno H, Ibayashi S, Fujishima M, Iida M. Relationship between plasma glutathione levels and cardiovascular disease in a defined population: the Hisayama study. Stroke. 2004 Sep;35(9):2072-7. Epub 2004 Jul 15. PMID: 15256685
  2. Paterson PG, Juurlink BH. Nutritional regulation of glutathione in stroke. Neurotox Res. 1999 Dec;1(2):99-112. PMID: 12835106
  3. Coppola L, Grassia A, Giunta R, Verrazzo G, Cava B, Tirelli A, D’Onofrio F. Glutathione (GSH) improved haemostatic and haemorheological parameters in atherosclerotic subjects. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1992;18(11-12):493-8.PMID: 1308476
  4. Kharb S. Low blood glutathione levels in acute myocardial infarction. Indian J Med Sci. 2003 Aug;57(8):335-7. PMID: 12944689
  5. Kugiyama K, Ohgushi M, Motoyama T, Hirashima O, Soejima H, Misumi K, Yoshimura M, Ogawa H, Sugiyama S, Yasue H. Intracoronary infusion of reduced glutathione improves endothelial vasomotor response to acetylcholine in human coronary circulation. Circulation. 1998 Jun 16;97(23):2299-301. PMID: 9639372
  6. Arosio E, De Marchi S, Zannoni M, Prior M, Lechi A. Effect of glutathione infusion on leg arterial circulation, cutaneous microcirculation, and pain-free walking distance in patients with peripheral obstructive arterial disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002 Aug;77(8):754-9.PMID: 12173710
  7. Ashfaq S, Abramson JL, Jones DP, Rhodes SD, Weintraub WS, Hooper WC, Vaccarino V, Harrison DG, Quyyumi AA. The relationship between plasma levels of oxidized and reduced thiols and early atherosclerosis in healthy adults. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Mar 7;47(5):1005-11. Epub 2006 Feb 9. PMID: 16516085

Heavy Metal Toxicity

  1. Patrick L. Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: Part 1: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity. Altern Med Rev. 2002 Dec;7(6):456-71. PMID: 12495372
  2. Kromidas L, Trombetta LD, Jamall IS. The protective effects of glutathione against methylmercury cytotoxicity. Toxicol Lett. 1990 Mar;51(1):67-80. PMID: 2315960
  3. Zalups RK. Molecular interactions with mercury in the kidney. Pharmacol Rev. 2000 Mar;52(1):113-43. PMID: 10699157
  4. Stohs SJ, Bagchi D. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radic Biol Med. 1995 Feb;18(2):321-36. PMID: 7744317 HIV
  5. Pace GW, Leaf CD. The role of oxidative stress in HIV disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 1995 Oct;19(4):523-8.PMID: 7590404
  6. Herzenberg LA, De Rosa SC, Dubs JG, Roederer M, Anderson MT, Ela SW, Deresinski SC, Herzenberg LA. Glutathione deficiency is associated with impaired survival in HIV disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Mar 4;94(5):1967-72. PMID: 9050888
  7. Aukrust P, Müller F, Svardal AM, Ueland T, Berge RK, Frøland SS. Disturbed glutathione metabolism and decreased antioxidant levels in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients during highly active antiretroviral therapy--potential immunomodulatory effects of antioxidants. J Infect Dis. 2003 Jul 15;188(2):232-8. Epub 2003 Jun 9. PMID: 12854078
  8. Sung JH, Shin SA, Park HK, Montelaro RC, Chong YH. Protective effect of glutathione in HIV-1 lytic peptide 1-induced cell death in human neuronal cells. J Neurovirol. 2001 Oct;7(5):454-65. PMID: 11582518

Influenza

  1. Cai J, Chen Y, Seth S, Furukawa S, Compans RW, Jones DP. Inhibition of influenza infection by glutathione. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003 Apr 1;34(7):928-36. PMID: 12654482
  2. Eropkin MIu, Gudkova TM, Konovalova NI, Shchekanova SM, Iaglovskaia IB, Eropkina EM, Kiselev OI. [Antiviral action of some antioxidants/antihypoxants and their combinations with remantadine against human influenza A(H3N2) virus studied in in vitro models]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2007 Sep-Oct;70(5):33-7. PMID: 18074805

Kidney/Renal & Liver/Hepatic Function

  1. Barbaro G, Di Lorenzo G, Soldini M, Parrotto S, Bellomo G, Belloni G, Grisorio B, Barbarini G. Hepatic glutathione deficiency in chronic hepatitis C: quantitative evaluation in patients who are HIV positive and HIV negative and correlations with plasmatic and lymphocytic concentrations and with the activity of the liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996 Dec;91(12):2569-73. PMID: 8946988
  2. Amano J, Suzuki A, Sunamori M. Salutary effect of reduced glutathione on renal function in coronary artery bypass operation. J Am Coll Surg. 1994 Dec;179(6):714-20. PMID: 7952483
  3. Chawla RK, Lewis FW, Kutner MH, Bate DM, Roy RG, Rudman D. Plasma cysteine, cystine, and glutathione in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 1984 Oct;87(4):770-6. PMID: 6468868
  4. Golling M, Kellner H, Fonouni H, Rad MT, Urbaschek R, Breitkreutz R, Gebhard MM, Mehrabi A. Reduced glutathione in the liver as a potential viability marker in non-heart-beating donors. Liver Transpl. 2008 Nov;14(11):1637-47. PMID: 18975272

Lung Disorders

  1. Kloek J, Mortaz E, van Ark I, Lilly CM, Nijkamp FP, Folkerts G. Glutathione prevents the early asthmatic reaction and airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010 Feb;61(1):67-72. PMID: 20228417
  2. Cantin AM, Hubbard RC, Crystal RG. Glutathione deficiency in the epithelial lining fluid of the lower respiratory tract in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989 Feb;139(2):370-2. PMID: 2913886
  3. Behr J, Maier K, Braun B, Schwaiblmair M, Vogelmeier C. Evidence for oxidative stress in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung and heart-lung transplantation. The Munich Lung Transplant Group. Transplantation. 2000 May 15;69(9):1856-60. PMID: 10830222
  4. Bibi H, Schlesinger M, Tabachnik E, Schwartz Y, Iscovitz H, Iaina A. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity in asthmatic children. Ann Allergy. 1988 Nov;61(5):339-40. PMID: 3189960
  5. Rahman I. Regulation of glutathione in inflammation and chronic lung diseases. Mutat Res. 2005 Nov 11;579(1-2):58-80. Epub 2005 Jul 27. PMID: 16054171
  6. Rahman I, MacNee W. Oxidative stress and regulation of glutathione in lung inflammation. Eur Respir J. 2000 Sep;16(3):534-54. PMID: 11028671
  7. Rahman I, MacNee W. Lung glutathione and oxidative stress: implications in cigarette smoke-induced airway disease. Am J Physiol. 1999 Dec;277(6 Pt 1):L1067-88. PMID: 10600876
  8. Luppi F, Aarbiou J, van Wetering S, Rahman I, de Boer WI, Rabe KF, Hiemstra PS. Effects of cigarette smoke condensate on proliferation and wound closure of bronchial epithelial cells in vitro: role of glutathione. Respir Res. 2005 Nov 25;6:140.PMID: 16309548
  9. Clark Bishop, Valerie M. Hudson, Sterling C. Hilton and Cathleen Wilde. A Pilot Study of the Effect of Inhaled Buffered Reduced Glutathione on the Clinical Status of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis. Chest 2005; 127; 308-317
  10. Lamson D, Brignall M. The Use of Nebulized Glutathione in the Treatment of Emphysema: a Case Report. Alternative Medicine Review; Volume 5, Number 5; 2000; 429-431
  11. Prousky J. The Treatment of Pulmonary Diseases and Respiratory-Related Conditions with Inhaled (Nebulized or Aerosolized) Glutathione. Advance Access Publication 17 May 2007;pages 27-35

Mold/Mycotoxins

  1. Farombi EO, Nwankwo JO, Emerole GO. The effect of modulation of glutathione levels on markers for aflatoxin B1-induced cell damage. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2005 Mar;34(1):37-43. PMID: 15971552
  2. Novi AM. Regression of aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinomas by reduced glutathione. Science. 1981 May 1;212(4494):541-2. PMID: 6782675
  3. Wang YM, Liu JB, Peng SQ. Effects of Fusarium mycotoxin butenolide on myocardial mitochondria in vitro. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2009 Feb;19(2):79-85. PMID: 19778250 Oxidative Stress & Aging
  4. Chang D, Wang F, Zhao YS, Pan HZ. Evaluation of oxidative stress in colorectal cancer patients.PMID: 18837290
  5. Morrison JP, Coleman MC, Aunan ES, Walsh SA, Spitz DR, Kregel KC. The significant changes in antioxidant enzyme activity after GSH depletion suggest that thiol status can influence the regulation of other antioxidant enzymes. Biomed Environ Sci. 2008 Aug;21(4):286-9. PMID: 15947071
  6. Erden-Inal M, Sunal E, Kanbak G. Age-related changes in the glutathione redox system. Cell Biochem Funct. 2002 Mar;20(1):61-6. PMID: 11835271
  7. Lang CA, Mills BJ, Lang HL, Liu MC, Usui WM, Richie J Jr, Mastropaolo W, Murrell SA. High blood glutathione levels accompany excellent physical and mental health in women ages 60 to 103 years. J Lab Clin Med. 2002 Dec;140(6):413-7. PMID: 12486409
  8. Carlo MD Jr, Loeser RF. Increased oxidative stress with aging reduces chondrocyte survival: correlation with intracellular glutathione levels. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Dec;48(12):3419-30. PMID: 14673993
  9. Fraternale A, Paoletti MF, Casabianca A, Nencioni L, Garaci E, Palamara AT, Magnani M. GSH and analogs in antiviral therapy. Mol Aspects Med. 2009 Feb-Apr;30(1-2):99-110. Epub 2008 Sep 27. PMID: 18926849
  10. Giblin FJ. Glutathione: a vital lens antioxidant. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Apr;16(2):121-35. PMID: 10803423

Parkinson’s Disease

  1. Schulz JB, Lindenau J, Seyfried J, Dichgans J. Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Eur J Biochem. 2000 Aug;267(16):4904-11. PMID: 10931172
  2. Jenner P, Dexter DT, Sian J, Schapira AH, Marsden CD. Oxidative stress as a cause of nigral cell death in Parkinson’s disease and incidental Lewy body disease. The Royal Kings and Queens Parkinson’s Disease Research Group. Ann Neurol. 1992;32 Suppl:S82-7. PMID: 1510385
  3. Kidd PM. Parkinson’s disease as multifactorial oxidative neurodegeneration: implications for integrative management. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Dec;5(6):502-29. PMID: 11134975
  4. Chinta SJ, Kumar MJ, Hsu M, Rajagopalan S, Kaur D, Rane A, Nicholls DG, Choi J, Andersen JK. Inducible alterations of glutathione levels in adult dopaminergic midbrain neurons result in nigrostriatal degeneration. J Neurosci. 2007 Dec 19;27(51):13997-4006. PMID: 18094238
  5. Di Monte DA, Chan P, Sandy MS. Glutathione in Parkinson’s disease: a link between oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage? Ann Neurol. 1992;32 Suppl:S111-5. PMID: 1510368
  6. Sechi G, Deledda MG, Bua G, Satta WM, Deiana GA, Pes GM, Rosati G. Reduced intravenous glutathione in the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1996 Oct;20(7):1159-70.PMID: 8938817

Rhinovirus

  1. Papi A, Contoli M, Gasparini P, Bristot L, Edwards MR, Chicca M, Leis M, Ciaccia A, Caramori G, Johnston SL, Pinamonti S. Role of xanthine oxidase activation and reduced glutathione depletion in rhinovirus induction of inflammation in respiratory epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2008 Oct 17;283(42):28595-606. Epub 2008 Aug 4. PMID: 18678861
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